Getting funky with $\LaTeX$ - Vol. 2

This will be focused on the German language, so be aware that most of the formatting settings are German !

Accompanying Document

Welcome back to Volume 2.

A plain document isn't all that interesting, so in this part, we'll dig into the organisation of a document.

General Information

There are language specific rules for the written text, therefor it's always important to define the right language. To define the language use the command

\documentclass[ngerman, english]{scrartcl}

This command defindes language options for all packages loaded afterwards with /usepackage [only if the languageoption is supported of course !]. The last language in the list will be the active one.

\usepackage{babel}

Changes to the selected language, changing a bunch of language-specific settings.

Commands

General

\section[<outline>]{title}
\subsection[<outline>]{title}
\subsubsection[<outline>]{title}
\paragraph[<outline>]{title}
\subparagraph[<outline>]{title}

Only in [scr]book

\part{title}
\subchaptr{title}
Information

Those commands define meta-information for the document.

\author{It's Me !}
\title{A nice document}
\date{\today}

Explanation

The commands shown above (except the special commands for the book) are in hierarchical order "levels" to nest content. The environment will take care of the proper numbering. You will never have to take care of the numbering and can always swap around text as you like, as /$LaTeX$ will take care of this.

Another handy feature of those structural commands, is that you can reference them, using

\label{sec:SectionLabelName}
\ref{sec:SectionLabelName}

The label command is used just below the section command, the ref command is used where you want to quote it. you can allways add

\ldots

after a reference in the code, to insert "..." in the language specific (typographically right) format.

Table of Contents

To add a table of contents, you simply write

\tableofcontents 

at the position you want it to appear.

The table will only update after formatting the document two times. (The reason for this is explained below in "Background Knowledge".)

Background Knowledge

To understand a little of the underlying structures we'll take a look at the $\TeX$ compiler.

The compiler reads (simplified) two files: the source file and a file containing format information. After processing the files the compiler outputs three files: a PDF-File, a Log-File and an Aux-File.

The Aux - Auxiliary - File contains information about the chapters, or languages and is reloaded into the compiler on every build. It is reloaded everytime, which is why we sometimes need to compile the file twice.